For comparison here's another grooming citation:
Valentine, B.D. 1973. Grooming behavior in Coleoptera. Coleopterists Bulletin, 27(2): 63-73.
Abstract: Grooming movements in Coleoptera are divided into 3 categories:
1) cleaning: appendages are passed through the mouth;
2) rubbing: with one or more legs; and
3) positioning: involving adjustment of the elytra, wings, or abdomen.
Cleaning movements involve placing an antenna, palpus, fore-, mid-, or hindleg in the mouth, either with or without the assistance of another leg.
Rubbing involves all possible combinations of a leg with another appendage or body surface and includes both unilateral and bilateral movements. Positioning includes elytral raising, wing extension and retraction, wing unfolding and refolding, and various body movements. Twenty-one basic grooming acts and over 50 modifications are described. The literature is reviewed and there is a discussion of variation ad its possible sources.
Data are from the following 38 families:
Alleculidae, Anobiidae, Anthicidae, Anthribidae, Apionidae, Attelabidae,
Bostrichidae, Bruchidae, Buprestidae, Cantharidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae,
Chrysomelidae, Cicindelidae, Cleridae, Coccinellidae, Cucujidae,
Curculionidae, Dermestidae, Elateridae, Histeridae, Lampyridae, Languriidae,
Meloidae, Melyridae, Mordellidae, Nemonychidae, Nitidulidae, Oedemeridae,
Ptilodactylidae, Pyrochroidae, Rhynchitidae, Scaphidiidae, Scarabaeidae,
Scolytidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Tenebrionidae.
Michael C. Thomas, Ph.D.
Florida State Collection of Arthropods
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
P.O. Box 147100
Gainesville, FL 32614-7100
Telephone: (352) 372-3505 FAX: (352) 334-0737 e-mail:
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Last modified on Tuesday, 12 November 2019